Hong-Ming Chen,1,2,* Vincent Chin-Hung Chen,1,2,* Han-Pin Hsiao,1 Yi-Ping Weng,1 Ya-Ting Hsu,1 Jun-Cheng Weng,1,3 Jian-An Su,1,2,4 Yi-Lung Chen5,6
1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Medical Foundation, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Yi-Lung Chen
Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, 500, Lioufeng Road, Wufeng, Taichung 413, Taiwan
Tel +886 4 2332 3456 Ext 20106
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Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Medical Foundation, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No. 6 West Sec., Chia-Pu Road, Puzi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan
Tel +886 5 362 1000 Ext 2855
Fax +886 5 362 3002
Purpose: Although post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) might develop and coexist after a major trauma, few studies have simultaneously examined them in patients with breast cancer. This study investigated the correlation between PTG and PTSS and their differential correlates in patients with breast cancer.
Patients and methods: Overall, 145 patients with breast cancer were recruited. PTG and PTSS were assessed using the PTG inventory and the Chinese version of startle, physiological arousal, anger, and numbness, respectively. We investigated the effects of demographics, chemotherapy, depression, family support, alexithymia, and anxiety symptoms on PTG and PTSS. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to select the independent correlates of PTSS and PTG.
Result: An association was observed between PTG and PTSS (r = 0.21). Based on multiple regression models, the common correlate of PTG (β = 0.271) and PTSS (β = 0.212) was anxiety symptoms. Differential independent correlates were years of education (β = 0.272), receiving chemotherapy (β = 0.248), and family support (β = 0.259) for PTG, and chronic pain (β = 0.316) and poor cognition (β = −0.350) for PTSS.
Conclusion: Differential correlates were observed for PTG and PTSS in patients with breast cancer. Possible mechanisms and relationships between PTG and PTSS were discussed.
Keywords: post-traumatic stress symptoms, post-traumatic growth, breast cancer, chemotherapy, family support
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